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Caliandro is typically Apulian, of Brindisi and Taranto, Caliendi, very rare of the Urbino area, Caliendo is a typically Campania surname, Caliendro, practically unique is almost certainly due to an error of transcription by Caliandro, they should all derive from a nickname linked to a physical characteristic or a hairdresser, in fact caliandrum - caliendrum was the Latin word for wig, traces of these surnames have been found in the Brindisi area since the 1700s with dei Caliandro as priests and notaries. (see Calandra) additions provided by Domenico Biondi The surname Caliandro is typical of Ceglie Messapica (BR) from here it spread then to the neighboring municipalities of new institution (beginning of the '900) that is, Villa Castelli and San Michele Salentino. The ancient name of Ceglie Messapica was Kalia, from here Kaliandrus, which later became Caliandro to indicate an inhabitant of Ceglie.

Bibliographic source' "L'origine dei cognomi Italianim storia ed etimologia" di E. Rossoni disponibile online su: https://archive.org/

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