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Atzei is typical of the south-western area of Sardinia, Atzeni, as well as in the Cagliari area where it is dominant it is also widespread throughout the rest of the island, Atzenis, almost disappeared, is from Cagliari, Atzeri is specific to Cagliari and its immediate vicinity, they should all descend from a Spanish stock and should derive from an ancient toponym by now disappeared Atzena or Assena near Ales nell'oristanese, traces of this surname are found as early as the 1400s. additions provided by Giuseppe Concas ATZENI; (AZENI); Atzei; (AZZEI); Atzeri; (ATHEN); (ATHENA / E); (ACEN); (Acene); (DE ACENI); (DACENI); (AKEN / A): they have in common meaning and etymology. We note that those in brackets no longer exist, but are found in the ancient documents of the Sardinian language. It is one of the most common surnames in Giudicale Sardinia, in the various exits. The fact that very often we find it in the De Athen form, has led many scholars to derive the surname from Athens, therefore referring to the arrival of Greeks, Athenians, in the period of the Byzantine domination. From ancient documents we can go back to the forefather of De Athen or De Athene: Petru D'Athen, who reports to the ancient, illustrious and powerful family of Torres. He lived in the twelfth century and he was responsible for the foundation of the ancient monastery of St. Nicholas of Trullas, following the concession to the Camaldolese, by Gosantine, Giudice di Torres, for the constitution of the monastic body and the affiliation to San Salvatore di Camaldoli, of the Benedictine order, coming from Tuscany, of the church of San Nicola di Trullas. The canon Giovanni Spano, an illustrious Sardinian historian and linguist of the 19th century, derives the surname Atzeni from the Phoenician Atzim, which means fortress. In Greek the term atzer means tip and corresponds to the Sardinian atza = tip, then atzùdu = leathery and stubborn together. The root atzan = immortal still exists in Greek. Pardu Atzeni or Atzei is a locality located under the northern slopes of Monte Arcuentu, in the territory of Arbus, but belonging to the Municipality of Gonnosfanadiga (South Western Sardinia): ancient town, now reduced to a few houses of farmers (sheepfolds). Pardu Atzei belonged to the Diocese of Terralba. We see the various outputs in ancient documents. Among the subscribers of the Peace of Eleonora of 1388, * LPDE, we find 20 Aceni, of which we remember: Aceni (de) Anthonio, jurato villas Guilarci Aceni (de) Anthonio, jurato villas Guilarci. * Guilarci.odierno Ghilarza. Contract Partis de Guilcier; Aceni (de) Barione, jurato villas Seercela. * destroyed. Sarcela - Serzele. Partis de Montibus; Aceni (de) Dominico, jurato villas Solarussa; Aceni (de) Joanne, jurato villas Putu Majore; Aceni (de) Nicolao, majore ville de Balamic (destroyed village - Contrate Montis Acuti); Aceni (de) Guantino, majore ville Genadas (* destroyed village-Contrate partis Alença); Aceni (de) Nicolao, majore ville de Berquilla (Berchidda - Contrate Montis Acuti). In the Condaghe of San Pietro di Silki (* CSPS - XI °, XII ° sec.), We find: Athen (de) Ithoccor (110, 112), donnu (lord, of noble origins), testis, kertu de servis (witness in a dispute for the possession of the easement); Athen (de) Petru (112), donnu, testis, kertu de servis. In the Condaghe of Santa Maria di Bonarcado, * CSMB - 11th, 12th century, we have the most common variant in Azene (6) and more rare in Athen (1). We remember: Azene (de) Baldufinu (father) and Azene (de) Orzocco (son) - 25 - in a quarrel (kertidu) between the Prior of the convent of SMB and the donnu (noble, sir) Petru de Figus, armentariu de logu (general administrator, direct collaborator of the Judge in the judicial state) for the possession of the easement; Vera de Athen, wife to (of) Gosantine Madzu. In the Condaghe of St. Nicholas of Trullas, * CSNT, 11th, 12th century, we find together de Açen and de Athen (24), among which we recall: (sos de Athen or Açen = the Athen or Açen, owners of Serra de Iugale, territory located between the current Municipalities of Cheremule and Giave, and co-owners of Campeta (Campeda); Iorgia de Athen (52, 279, 312, 313), gives St. Nicholas half of his possessions to his death. Ego Iorgia de Athen ponio (gift) in Sanctu Nichola de Trullas, pro s'anima mea (for my soul) sa parthone (part) mea de cantu I dittat you in Birori (of what I deserve in Birore - current), sa corte and sos homines (the house and the servants). In the judicial history we also remember: Atzeni or Açen Aldobrandino de Sena (destroyed village - near Banari) collaborator and partisan of Mariano IV of Arborea, he distinguished himself in the struggles between the kingdom of Arborea and the kingdom Aragonese, Atzeni Petro, Armentario de Logu (general administrator) of the Arboreal kingdom under Mariano IV (father of Eleanor). recent history we mention: Atzei, father (of the friars minor) Paolo, born in Mantua on 21 February 1942, current bishop of the Diocese of Tempio Ampurias since 1993; Azzei Giovanni Antioco (1760/1821) archbishop of Oristano, man of letters, bound by style to the Arcadia group (two funerary orations are preserved).