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Finocchi is typical of the central belt, Tuscany, Marche, Umbria, Abruzzo and Lazio, Finocchietti has a small stock in Genoa and in Genoa, Livorno and Rome, Finocchio is typical instead of Abruzzo, Molise, Lazio and Sicily, from Palermo and above all from Messina, they should derive, directly or through a hypocoristic form, from the medieval name Finochio (to be understood as an eye up, from the acute view), of which we have an example of use in a medieval accounting register in the Pistoia area: "..Finochio with his nephew in the tenth position Castagniolo similit (er) tenth, filio Carandini similit (er) ... ". additions provided by Stefano Ferrazzi Finocchi is more typically northern, with major stocks in the Roman, Viterbo, Arezzo, Pistoia, Perugia, Macerata, Pesaro and Pescara areas, Finocchio, present from north to south of the country, it has a main nucleus between the Pescara and Chieti areas and non-secondary stumps in the Messina, Palermo, Roman and Frusinate areas, both of these surnames derive from the medieval name Finocchio, in which the reference to the homonymous plant is more probably understood in an apotropaic sense (that is, in order to keep away the evil influences): it must be remembered, in fact, that the medieval symbolism attributed to fennel the faculty to remove negative forces (such as, for example, the evil eye) and, in this sense, between fennel was also used as an amulet for the protection of children and homes. Beyond this particular meaning, moreover, it must be said that fennel, over time, has taken on different symbolic values, which may have contributed to the formation of this name: the ancient Romans, for example, saw in this plant a symbol of strength and the gladiators themselves used both to feed themselves (to increase their physical strength) and to dress their heads; moreover, in classical antiquity, fennel was considered a symbol of fertility (in this sense, in fact, it was the emblem of the Dionysian cults in ancient Greece); in Christian symbolism, finally, fennel (together with rosemary) brings to mind the aromatic oils used by women to anoint the body of Christ, after he was taken down from the cross. For information, traces of this name are found in Lucca in the early 1300s, with a certain Ser Finocchio Martini, a notary by profession. As far as the surnames in question are concerned, therefore, these are the surnames of the personal names of the founders, even if in some cases a derivation from nicknames or trade names is not excluded (such as that of finocchiaro or a fennel grower).