Typical of Casale di Carinola (CE), patrician family, whose name probably derives from a detail of the coat of arms of the family. additions provided by Domenico Anfora This family, since the 12th century, was present in Terra del Lavoro, in the area of Carinola, where Tommaso became Bishop at the end of the century. He enjoyed nobility in Sorrento and during the Bourbon period some members of the family were admitted to the bodyguard of the king. Francis was a brigadier general and butler of the week of Ferdinand II. Francesco Saverio, son of General Raffaele, reached the rank of lieutenant colonel and was among the most valiant defenders of Gaeta against the Piedmontese (1860-61). He wrote an essay on that siege. At the beginning of the 19th century the family was divided into two branches, both patricians of Sorrento. To Giuseppe, who died in 1894, was given the title of Duke of Licignano with the Royal Decree of 21-06-1891.
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