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Polcino and Polcini are typically Benevento surnames. additions and emblem provided by Fabio Paolucci Many hypotheses have been formulated about the origin of the name of the town Pietrelcina (formerly Pietralcina), known to all of us as the birthplace of San Pio da Pietrelcina: the most accredited traces the name of the village to Policenus (which in Latin means chick), name of the Norman Lord who in the 12th century occupied the fiefdom by giving the name "Petra Polcina" to the village: the term "Petra" indicated the limestone on which stood the ancient settlement. The passage of the name from Pietra Polcina to Pietra Elcina took place in the year 1687. Interesting chronicles of the earthquake of June 5, 1688 report that the disastrous cataclysm destroyed the ancient baronial palace: during the rubble removal operation a stone bearing an hen and chicks sketched from the chisel. This was probably the Polcini crest. Currently there are several groups with this surname in Benevento: the best known is the Tartaglia branch - Polcini di Circello, related to the most noble families of the place and among these is included in the text "Municipalities in the province of Benevento", A. Meomartini , and 1907. According to accredited scholars of Heraldry, from Provence this family settled in the early 10th century in Tuscany, and had the Patriziato di Firenze, hereditary. It passed around 1625 in the Neapolitan with Andrea, who founded a noble chapel in the church of the Riformati. Domenico was Bishop of Ariano in 1770. They had the Baronial feud of Rocchetta. Another branch passed in Sicily obtaining the Lordship over the city of Ostuni in 1364 by Charles I of Anjou and that of Anglona and Cilanza. Frederick III King of Sicily invested Ruggero son of Oddo in the feuds of Regalgio and Tortoreto in 1639. In 1453 Federico had the fief of Graniti in the territory of Francavilla and Pietro, of him his son, those of Camastra and Castelluzzo. The surname Polcino is present in Colle Sannita since the first sixteenth-century documentations: many families with this surname are registered (but there is also Porcino, probably in all the original surname of the Colle family), mostly devoted to agricultural activity. The pluralized form Polcini begins to be documented in Colle starting from the 1800s. The fact that the same households are registered both with the surname in the original form in the singular and in the pluralized form, leads to consider that it was common practice in past centuries to indicate people with a given surname using both forms: usually, in life daily, with the expression "i Polcini" the whole family was indicated, while with the expression "il Polcino", in the singular, the single component of that family was indicated (this situation can be found for almost all the surnames studied ). A Polcini family, but not from Colle Sannita, was powerful in the past: the Polcini, then Tartaglia - Polcini, from Circello, Polcini stock unrelated and separated from the various Polcino and Polcini of Colle Sannita. The Tartaglia - Polcini descend from Don Giuseppe Polcini, a nobleman born around the middle of the 18th century who was the administrator of the property of Don Ottavio Mormile, Duke of Campochiaro (Ambassador of the Bourbons in Paris at the time of the Congress of Vienna, who died in 1836). The "Excellency Magnificent Don Almerico Meomartini", my direct ancestor, often took care of the affairs of his duke friend, anticipating his annuities in silver ducats, which don Giuseppe Polcini then returned to him as administrator of the duke. The Duke of Campochiaro, overburdened by gambling debts, was forced to sell all his properties, which were purchased by Polcini and Meomartini, who saw their fortunes rise dramatically. The surname Tartaglia - Polcini was formed towards the first half of the nineteenth century by the union of the notary nobleman Don Donato Tartaglia of Castelpagano and Donna Alfonsa Polcini of Circello (descendant of don Giuseppe), from whom in 1832 the illustrious was born in the paternal country doctor Don Nicola Tartaglia - Polcini, a scholar in the most diverse fields of culture (Latin language, religion, legal and philosophical studies, biology, medicine and science) to which the main square of Circello is named. From the Books Baptizatorum of the year 1832 of Circello we read: "Today twenty-nine thousand eight hundred and thirty-two D. Giacomo Polcini of Circello with my permission baptized an infant born at seventeen o'clock in the twenty-fifth day of the said to which he imposed the name of Nicola son of the spouses "Notar Donato Tartaglia and Signora Alfonsa Polcini. The mother was Raffaella Polcini of Giuseppe, and in faith. Nista Arciprete". Of this illustrious House are the noble Tartaglia - Polcini of Benevento and Circello, descendants of the spouses Cavaliere della Corona don Giacomo Tartaglia - Polcini (1868 - 1941) of Circello and woman Luisa de Paulis, daughter of the noble colish don Raffaele and woman Teresa Meomartini.
Tartaglia is typical of southern Italy, Campania, Molise and Foggia in particular, Tartagli, very rare, it would seem of the Florentine, Tartaglini has a strain in the Anconetano in Castelfidardo and Ancona and a Roman, Tartaglino is decidedly Dell'astigiano, San Damiano d'asti, Vigliano d'asti and Asti, with a strain also in Turin, Tartaglione is typical of the area that includes the Iserniese, the Neapolitan and the Caserta especially the area of marcianise, with strains also in the Foggiano, should derive from a nickname Originated from a speech defect. Additions provided by Stefano Ferrazzi The origin of these surnames must be sought in the medieval name Tartaglia, with the literal meaning of stutterer (see also the surnames Balbo, Biagio and Ciavaglia). From the historical point of view, traces of this name are found both in Siena in the course of ' 200, with a merchant named Tartaglia da Orgiale, both in Umbria during the ' 400, with the leader Tartaglia from Foligno; In the Rome of 1400, there is also a certain Tavernaro Tartaglia. As regards the last names in question, therefore, these are the cognominizations or personal names of the parent or nicknames attributed to them. Additions provided by Tommaso Tartaglione the surname Tartaglione is present in Marcianise since 1395 with a Cubellus Tartallonnus (Giacomo Tartaglione) as reported by the historian Capuano Jannelli. Most likely Marcianise is the center of origin of this surname.